PNG (Portable Network Graphics) Specification, Version 1.1

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12. Appendix: Rationale

(This appendix is not part of the formal PNG specification.)

This appendix gives the reasoning behind some of the design decisions in PNG. Many of these decisions were the subject of considerable debate. The authors freely admit that another group might have made different decisions; however, we believe that our choices are defensible and consistent.

12.1. Why a new file format?

Does the world really need yet another graphics format? We believe so. GIF is no longer freely usable, but no other commonly used format can directly replace it, as is discussed in more detail below. We might have used an adaptation of an existing format, for example GIF with an unpatented compression scheme. But this would require new code anyway; it would not be all that much easier to implement than a whole new file format. (PNG is designed to be simple to implement, with the exception of the compression engine, which would be needed in any case.) We feel that this is an excellent opportunity to design a new format that fixes some of the known limitations of GIF.

12.2. Why these features?

The features chosen for PNG are intended to address the needs of applications that previously used the special strengths of GIF. In particular, GIF is well adapted for online communications because of its streamability and progressive display capability. PNG shares those attributes.

We have also addressed some of the widely known shortcomings of GIF. In particular, PNG supports truecolor images. We know of no widely used image format that losslessly compresses truecolor images as effectively as PNG does. We hope that PNG will make use of truecolor images more practical and widespread.

Some form of transparency control is desirable for applications in which images are displayed against a background or together with other images. GIF provided a simple transparent-color specification for this purpose. PNG supports a full alpha channel as well as transparent-color specifications. This allows both highly flexible transparency and compression efficiency.

Robustness against transmission errors has been an important consideration. For example, images transferred across the Internet are often mistakenly processed as text, leading to file corruption. PNG is designed so that such errors can be detected quickly and reliably.

PNG has been expressly designed not to be completely dependent on a single compression technique. Although deflate/inflate compression is mentioned in this document, PNG would still exist without it.

12.3. Why not these features?

Some features have been deliberately omitted from PNG. These choices were made to simplify implementation of PNG, promote portability and interchangeability, and make the format as simple and foolproof as possible for users. In particular:

It is worth noting that private extensions to PNG could easily add these features. We will not, however, include them as part of the basic PNG standard.

PNG also does not support multiple images in one file. This restriction is a reflection of the reality that many applications do not need and will not support multiple images per file. In any case, single images are a fundamentally different sort of object from sequences of images. Rather than make false promises of interchangeability, we have drawn a clear distinction between single-image and multi-image formats. PNG is a single-image format. (But see Multiple-image extension.)

12.4. Why not use format X?

We considered numerous existing formats before deciding to develop PNG. None could meet the requirements that we felt were important for PNG.

GIF is no longer suitable as a universal standard because of legal entanglements. Although just replacing GIF's compression method would avoid that problem, GIF does not support truecolor images, alpha channels, or gamma correction. The spec has more subtle problems too. Only a small subset of the GIF89 spec is actually portable across a variety of implementations, but there is no codification of the most portable part of the spec.

TIFF (the Tagged Image File Format) is far too complex to meet our goals of simplicity and interchangeability. Defining a TIFF subset would meet that objection, but would frustrate users making the reasonable assumption that a file saved as TIFF from their existing software would load into a program supporting our flavor of TIFF. Furthermore, TIFF is not designed for stream processing, has no provision for progressive display, and does not currently provide any good, legally unencumbered, lossless compression method.

IFF has also been suggested, but is not suitable in detail: available image representations are too machine-specific or not adequately compressed. The overall chunk structure of IFF is a useful concept that PNG has liberally borrowed from, but we did not attempt to be bit-for-bit compatible with IFF chunk structure. Again this is due to detailed issues, notably the fact that IFF FORMs are not designed to be serially writable.

Lossless JPEG is not suitable because it does not provide for the storage of indexed-color images. Furthermore, its lossless truecolor compression is often inferior to that of PNG.

12.5. Byte order

It has been asked why PNG uses network byte order. We have selected one byte ordering and used it consistently. Which order in particular is of little relevance, but network byte order has the advantage that routines to convert to and from it are already available on any platform that supports TCP/IP networking, including all PC platforms. The functions are trivial and will be included in the reference implementation.

12.6. Interlacing

PNG's two-dimensional interlacing scheme is more complex to implement than GIF's line-wise interlacing. It also costs a little more in file size. However, it yields an initial image eight times faster than GIF (the first pass transmits only 1/64th of the pixels, compared to 1/8th for GIF). Although this initial image is coarse, it is useful in many situations. For example, if the image is a World Wide Web imagemap that the user has seen before, PNG's first pass is often enough to determine where to click. The PNG scheme also looks better than GIF's, because horizontal and vertical resolution never differ by more than a factor of two; this avoids the odd "stretched" look seen when interlaced GIFs are filled in by replicating scanlines. Preliminary results show that small text in an interlaced PNG image is typically readable about twice as fast as in an equivalent GIF, i.e., after PNG's fifth pass or 25% of the image data, instead of after GIF's third pass or 50%. This is again due to PNG's more balanced increase in resolution.

12.7. Why gamma?

It might seem natural to standardize on storing sample values proportional to display output intensity (that is, have gamma of 1.0). But in fact, it is common for images to have a gamma of less than 1. There are three good reasons for this:

In practice, image gamma values around 1.0, 1/2.2, and 1/1.45 are all widely found. Older image standards such as GIF and JFIF often do not account for this fact. The exchange of images among a variety of systems has led to widespread problems with images appearing "too dark" or "too light".

PNG expects viewers to compensate for image gamma at the time that the image is displayed. Another possible approach is to expect encoders to convert all images to a uniform gamma at encoding time. While that method would speed viewers slightly, it has fundamental flaws:

Since there will always be images with no gamma or an incorrect recorded gamma, good viewers will need to incorporate gamma adjustment code anyway. Gamma correction at viewing time is thus the right way to go.

Historical note: Version 1.0 of this specification used the gAMA chunk to express the relationship between the file samples and the "original scene intensity" (camera input) rather than the desired display output intensity. This was changed in version 1.1 for the following reasons:

Because the gamma-related recommendations in version 1.0 were imprecise, it was not clear what value to put in a gAMA chunk in common situations. For an image drawn on a CRT display with no LUT under unknown viewing conditions, an argument could be made for any value between 40000 and 50000. Real applications were observed to write 45000 or 45455, and the latter is recommended by the current specification.

See Gamma Tutorial for more information.

12.8. Non-premultiplied alpha

PNG uses "unassociated" or "non-premultiplied" alpha so that images with separate transparency masks can be stored losslessly. Another common technique, "premultiplied alpha", stores pixel values premultiplied by the alpha fraction; in effect, the image is already composited against a black background. Any image data hidden by the transparency mask is irretrievably lost by that method, since multiplying by a zero alpha value always produces zero.

Some image rendering techniques generate images with premultiplied alpha (the alpha value actually represents how much of the pixel is covered by the image). This representation can be converted to PNG by dividing the sample values by alpha, except where alpha is zero. The result will look good if displayed by a viewer that handles alpha properly, but will not look very good if the viewer ignores the alpha channel.

Although each form of alpha storage has its advantages, we did not want to require all PNG viewers to handle both forms. We standardized on non-premultiplied alpha as being the lossless and more general case.

12.9. Filtering

PNG includes filtering capability because filtering can significantly reduce the compressed size of truecolor and grayscale images. Filtering is also sometimes of value on indexed-color images, although this is less common.

The filter algorithms are defined to operate on bytes, rather than pixels; this gains simplicity and speed with very little cost in compression performance. Tests have shown that filtering is usually ineffective for images with fewer than 8 bits per sample, so providing pixelwise filtering for such images would be pointless. For 16 bit/sample data, bytewise filtering is nearly as effective as pixelwise filtering, because MSBs are predicted from adjacent MSBs, and LSBs are predicted from adjacent LSBs.

The encoder is allowed to change filters for each new scanline. This creates no additional complexity for decoders, since a decoder is required to contain defiltering logic for every filter type anyway. The only cost is an extra byte per scanline in the pre-compression datastream. Our tests showed that when the same filter is selected for all scanlines, this extra byte compresses away to almost nothing, so there is little storage cost compared to a fixed filter specified for the whole image. And the potential benefits of adaptive filtering are too great to ignore. Even with the simplistic filter-choice heuristics so far discovered, adaptive filtering usually outperforms fixed filters. In particular, an adaptive filter can change behavior for successive passes of an interlaced image; a fixed filter cannot.

12.10. Text strings

Most graphics file formats include the ability to store some textual information along with the image. But many applications need more than that: they want to be able to store several identifiable pieces of text. For example, a database using PNG files to store medical X-rays would likely want to include patient's name, doctor's name, etc. A simple way to do this in PNG would be to invent new private chunks holding text. The disadvantage of such an approach is that other applications would have no idea what was in those chunks, and would simply ignore them. Instead, we recommend that textual information be stored in standard tEXt chunks with suitable keywords. Use of tEXt tells any PNG viewer that the chunk contains text that might be of interest to a human user. Thus, a person looking at the file with another viewer will still be able to see the text, and even understand what it is if the keywords are reasonably self-explanatory. (To this end, we recommend spelled-out keywords, not abbreviations that will be hard for a person to understand. Saving a few bytes on a keyword is false economy.)

The ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) character set was chosen as a compromise between functionality and portability. Some platforms cannot display anything more than 7-bit ASCII characters, while others can handle characters beyond the Latin-1 set. We felt that Latin-1 represents a widely useful and reasonably portable character set. Latin-1 is a direct subset of character sets commonly used on popular platforms such as Microsoft Windows and X Windows. It can also be handled on Macintosh systems with a simple remapping of characters.

There is presently no provision for text employing character sets other than Latin-1. We recognize that the need for other character sets will increase. However, PNG already requires that programmers implement a number of new and unfamiliar features, and text representation is not PNG's primary purpose. Since PNG provides for the creation and public registration of new ancillary chunks of general interest, we expect that text chunks for other character sets, such as Unicode, eventually will be registered and increase gradually in popularity.

12.11. PNG file signature

The first eight bytes of a PNG file always contain the following values:

   (decimal)              137  80  78  71  13  10  26  10
   (hexadecimal)           89  50  4e  47  0d  0a  1a  0a
   (ASCII C notation)    \211   P   N   G  \r  \n \032 \n

This signature both identifies the file as a PNG file and provides for immediate detection of common file-transfer problems. The first two bytes distinguish PNG files on systems that expect the first two bytes to identify the file type uniquely. The first byte is chosen as a non-ASCII value to reduce the probability that a text file may be misrecognized as a PNG file; also, it catches bad file transfers that clear bit 7. Bytes two through four name the format. The CR-LF sequence catches bad file transfers that alter newline sequences. The control-Z character stops file display under MS-DOS. The final line feed checks for the inverse of the CR-LF translation problem.

A decoder may further verify that the next eight bytes contain an IHDR chunk header with the correct chunk length; this will catch bad transfers that drop or alter null (zero) bytes.

Note that there is no version number in the signature, nor indeed anywhere in the file. This is intentional: the chunk mechanism provides a better, more flexible way to handle format extensions, as explained in Chunk naming conventions.

12.12. Chunk layout

The chunk design allows decoders to skip unrecognized or uninteresting chunks: it is simply necessary to skip the appropriate number of bytes, as determined from the length field.

Limiting chunk length to 231-1 bytes avoids possible problems for implementations that cannot conveniently handle 4-byte unsigned values. In practice, chunks will usually be much shorter than that anyway.

A separate CRC is provided for each chunk in order to detect badly-transferred images as quickly as possible. In particular, critical data such as the image dimensions can be validated before being used.

The chunk length is excluded from the CRC so that the CRC can be calculated as the data is generated; this avoids a second pass over the data in cases where the chunk length is not known in advance. Excluding the length from the CRC does not create any extra risk of failing to discover file corruption, since if the length is wrong, the CRC check will fail: the CRC will be computed on the wrong set of bytes and then be tested against the wrong value from the file.

12.13. Chunk naming conventions

The chunk naming conventions allow safe, flexible extension of the PNG format. This mechanism is much better than a format version number, because it works on a feature-by-feature basis rather than being an overall indicator. Decoders can process newer files if and only if the files use no unknown critical features (as indicated by finding unknown critical chunks). Unknown ancillary chunks can be safely ignored. We decided against having an overall format version number because experience has shown that format version numbers hurt portability as much as they help. Version numbers tend to be set unnecessarily high, leading to older decoders rejecting files that they could have processed (this was a serious problem for several years after the GIF89 spec came out, for example). Furthermore, private extensions can be made either critical or ancillary, and standard decoders should react appropriately; overall version numbers are no help for private extensions.

A hypothetical chunk for vector graphics would be a critical chunk, since if ignored, important parts of the intended image would be missing. A chunk carrying the Mandelbrot set coordinates for a fractal image would be ancillary, since other applications could display the image without understanding what the image represents. In general, a chunk type should be made critical only if it is impossible to display a reasonable representation of the intended image without interpreting that chunk.

The public/private property bit ensures that any newly defined public chunk type name cannot conflict with proprietary chunks that could be in use somewhere. However, this does not protect users of private chunk names from the possibility that someone else may use the same chunk name for a different purpose. It is a good idea to put additional identifying information at the start of the data for any private chunk type.

When a PNG file is modified, certain ancillary chunks may need to be changed to reflect changes in other chunks. For example, a histogram chunk needs to be changed if the image data changes. If the file editor does not recognize histogram chunks, copying them blindly to a new output file is incorrect; such chunks should be dropped. The safe/unsafe property bit allows ancillary chunks to be marked appropriately.

Not all possible modification scenarios are covered by the safe/unsafe semantics. In particular, chunks that are dependent on the total file contents are not supported. (An example of such a chunk is an index of IDAT chunk locations within the file: adding a comment chunk would inadvertently break the index.) Definition of such chunks is discouraged. If absolutely necessary for a particular application, such chunks can be made critical chunks, with consequent loss of portability to other applications. In general, ancillary chunks can depend on critical chunks but not on other ancillary chunks. It is expected that mutually dependent information should be put into a single chunk.

In some situations it may be unavoidable to make one ancillary chunk dependent on another. Although the chunk property bits are insufficient to represent this case, a simple solution is available: in the dependent chunk, record the CRC of the chunk depended on. It can then be determined whether that chunk has been changed by some other program.

The same technique can be useful for other purposes. For example, if a program relies on the palette being in a particular order, it can store a private chunk containing the CRC of the PLTE chunk. If this value matches when the file is again read in, then it provides high confidence that the palette has not been tampered with. Note that it is not necessary to mark the private chunk unsafe-to-copy when this technique is used; thus, such a private chunk can survive other editing of the file.

12.14. Palette histograms

A viewer may not be able to provide as many colors as are listed in the image's palette. (For example, some colors could be reserved by a window system.) To produce the best results in this situation, it is helpful to have information about the frequency with which each palette index actually appears, in order to choose the best palette for dithering or to drop the least-used colors. Since images are often created once and viewed many times, it makes sense to calculate this information in the encoder, although it is not mandatory for the encoder to provide it.

Other image formats have usually addressed this problem by specifying that the palette entries should appear in order of frequency of use. That is an inferior solution, because it doesn't give the viewer nearly as much information: the viewer can't determine how much damage will be done by dropping the last few colors. Nor does a sorted palette give enough information to choose a target palette for dithering, in the case that the viewer needs to reduce the number of colors substantially. A palette histogram provides the information needed to choose such a target palette without making a pass over the image data.

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